Friday, May 22, 2020

The Effects of Objectification of the Human Body in...

Kylie Greenham March 29, 2012 In recent history, there have been many cases of rape all over the world that have been sparking public outrage, not only because of the perverse acts but also for the way that society has responded to these attacks. The Steubenville, Ohio case is one account, where a sixteen year old girl was raped by two high school football players. Instead of focusing on the tragedy of the rape, the public and the media chose to speak about the two rapists - the boys - and how their promising football careers were over. It was suggested that the girl was at fault for being drunk, and that she was known for lying in the past, and could possibly be lying about the case (Poladian, 1). This is only one example of†¦show more content†¦Where the upper-class aestheticize the body and give it a monetary value, the poor aestheticize it for means of control. Sex in public and rape are almost common place occurrences, and Cynthia claims that if one of the men tried to come on to her, that â⠂¬Å"the police would say [she] asked for it† (Hopkinson, 60). Much like in the Steubenville case, the victim of the rape would be blamed by the police for the fault of the rape. The only form of control that the lower-class have over their bodies is to objectify them. They cannot feed themselves properly, they cannot take care of themselves properly, and they cannot exchange their bodies like the upper-class people can. The police, who are the political influence, are corrupt with their biased opinions about the lower-class citizens. They would automatically assume that the women were asking for sex, even if what had happened was non-consensual. This freedom from condemnation gives the lower-class people the only means over power and control they have, through the objectification of other human bodies. In â€Å"The Handmaid’s Tale†, instead of giving control of other people’s bodies, the authority take control of bodies. The women who are still fert ile are revered, but forced into a lifestyle of sex and bearing children for a man they do not know. These women are no longer individuals. They now belong to a man, as is seen by the name that the protagonist is given: Offred. The name is intended to

Sunday, May 10, 2020

Who is Irish Book Review

Gish Jen, the author of â€Å"Who is Irish† gives a recount narration of an elderly American citizen woman aged sixty-eight-years-old and of Chinese ethnicity. This immigrant struggles to cope with other cultures that are different from her own. Although the main character has spent her lifetime in the United States, she is still suspicious of other cultures and races. For instance, she is doubtful of her own son-in-law who is of Irish origin. There sinks into deeper suspicion to learn that her grandchild has opted with all conviction to uphold American values. Due to her distrust of other cultures this woman finds it very difficult to believe the American way of disciplining. This conviction and distrust make her apply measures when nurturing her grandchild Sophie. Conflict emerges between the elderly woman and her own daughter later due to their choices of cultures. This conflict is evident when the main character’s daughter learns that grandmother has been caning Sophie her daughter. Due to this misunderstanding in ways of upbringing she sends her mother away. Things get even worse when their relation and contact is not as it used to be.   She directs Sophie not have any close contact with grandmother and also asks her never to pay her visit in her new abode. In this book, the author clearly depicts that sense of not belonging solely is in our perception.   And it is this approach that matters to decide on the eventful life thereafter. In this story, the audience is served with an immigrant Chinese grandmother. The author uses the protagonist in the narration to paint the varied differences in gaps of socialization, ethnicity gaps, age gaps, gaps in family interactions. The woman defines herself to be fierce. Her identity changed since the times she lost her husband. She was also a committed woman who alongside her husband successfully managed a bistro. She claims her own daughter is vicious as well through her undertaking. This quality is linked to her daughters’ career in the bank where she is the banks vice president. She is a determined woman because she harbors’ the thought of being the custodian of her grand child. This is evident in her struggle to instill her way of upbringing in the little innocent child of mixed cultures. The immigrant woman disapproves of her son-in-law for the reason that he as well as his brothers is unemployed despite their American origin by birth and ethnicity. Gish Jen depicts the narrators’ belief and conviction that considers the world to have turned upside down. Her belief fights the notion that her son-in-law is sitting idle at home yet considers himself devalued incase he babysits his own child. In her culture, it would be acceptable that her daughter take the responsibility to raise her child. The elderly woman also contemplates on reasons why her in law should not be a man. His dependency on others leading to support is an eye sore to her and her culture. Things come out of hand when Sophie hides from her grand mother due to social challenges affecting her parents. Her parents notice her hiding in a foxhole in the field and misunderstand that to be a safety from her grandmother. To Sophie’s parents, this definitely amounts to child molestation and is reason enough for grandmother to be sent away. Needs and wants conflict in Who is Irish at the time the elderly woman’s daughter is torn between sentiments of want to send her mother away and the need to keep her due social pressure of a depressed jobless husband and a daughter who needs an extra hand and attention. On the other hand she has nobody to share her predicaments with. The narrative concludes with an interweaving of relations when the mother to John is residing with the immigrant woman. Irrespective of her earlier strained relations with the son to this woman, she finds her admirable and worthy of trust. The role of grand mother appears motivational as she plays the role of keeping this other woman. Conclusion This account carries generational divergence that is complicated by cultural difference. It portrays significantly on this strains in modern-day American life. The modern day world is made up of inter-marriage and other social relationship challenges that many societies face today. Another thing haunting the society today is the economic hardship for working mothers. Besides, family needs and time is also a major issue affecting career women and the society as a whole. Relationships in the family setting are strained, while aging and in-law disagreement, child care, and childrens reactions are common and rife. In this book the unbiased author Gish Jen, in grandmothers voice, develops all the inclusive themes with humor and great literary skill. As it ends the audience is caught suspended on whether the resorts are the intended solutions. Reference The New Yorker Publisher Conde Nast Edition February 5, 1972 Alternate  Source Whos Irish: Stories Alternate  Publisher Knopf Alternate  Edition 1999 Place Published New York Annotated  by Aull, Felice Date  of  Entry 01/12/99 Last Revised 12/05/06

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Euro Disney Free Essays

Case Study: 1 The Not-So-Wonderful World of Euro Disney BONJOUR, MICKEY: In April 1992, EuroDisney SCA opened its doors to European visitors. Located by the river Marne some 20 miles east of Paris, it was designed to be the biggest and most lavish theme park that Walt Disney Company (Disney) had built to date – bigger than Disneyland in Anaheim, California; Disney World in Oralando, Florida; and Tokyo Disneyland in Japan. Much to Disney management’s surprise, Europeans failed to â€Å"go goofy† over Mickey, unlike their Japanese counterparts. We will write a custom essay sample on Euro Disney or any similar topic only for you Order Now Between 1990 and early 1992, some 14 million people had visited Tokyo Disneyland, with three-quarters being repeat visitors. A family of four staying overnight at a nearby hotel would easily spend $600 on a visit to the park. In contrast, at EuroDisney, families were reluctant to spend the $280 a day needed to enjoy the attractions of the park, including les hamburgers and les milkshakes. Staying overnight was out of the question for many because hotel rooms were so high priced. For example, prices ranged from $110 to $380 a night at the Newport Bay Club, the largest of EuroDisney’s six new hotels and one of the biggest in Europe. In comparison, a room in a top hotel in Paris cost between $340 and $380 a night. Financial losses became so massive at EuroDisney that the president had to structure a rescue package to put EuroDisney back on firm financial ground. Many French bankers questioned the initial financing but the Disney response was that their views reflected the cautious. Old world thinking of Europeans who didn’t understand U. S. -style free market financing. After some acrimonious dealings with French banks a two-year financial plan was negotiated. Disney management rapidly revised their marketing plan and introduced strategic and tactical changes in the hope of â€Å"doing it right† this time. A Real Estate Dream Come True : The Paris location was chosen over 200 other potential sites stretching from Portugal through Spain, France, Italy, and into Greece. Spain thought it had the strongest bid based on its yearlong temperate and sunny Mediterranean climate, but insufficient acreage of land was available for development around Barcelona. In the end, the French government’s generous incentives, together with impressive data on regional demographics, swayed Disney management to choose the Paris location. It was calculated that some 310 million people in Europe live within two hours’ air travel of EuroDisney, and 17 million could reach the park within two hours by car – better demographics than at any other Disney site. Pessimistic talk about the dismal winter weather of northern France was countered with references to the success of Tokyo Disneyland, where resolute visitors brave cold winds and snow to enjoy their piece of Americana. Furthermore, it was argued, Paris is Europe’s most-popular city destination among tourists of all nationalities. Spills and Thrills: Disney had projected that the new theme park would attract 11 million visitors and generate over $100 million in operating earnings during the first year of operation. By summer 1994, EuroDisney had lost more than $900 million since opening. Attendance reached only 9. 2 million in 1992, and visitors spent 12 percent less on purchases than the estimated $33 per head. If tourists were not flocking to taste the thrills of the new EuroDisney, where were they going for their summer vacations in 1992? Ironically enough, an unforeseen combination of transatlantic airfare wars and currency movements resulted in a trip to Disney World in Orlando being cheaper than a trip to Paris, with guaranteed good weather and beautiful Floridian beaches within easy reach. EuroDisney management took steps to rectify immediate problems in 1992 by cutting rates at two hotels up to 25 percent, introducing some cheaper meals at restaurants, and launching a Paris ad blitz that proclaimed â€Å"California in only 20 miles from Paris. An American Icon : One of the most worrying aspects of EuroDisney’s first year was that French visitors stayed away; they had been expected to make up 50 percent of the attendance figures. A park services consulting firm framed the problem in these words; â€Å"The French see EuroDisney as American imperialism – plastics at its worst. † The well-known, sentimental Japanese attachment to Disney characters contrasted starkly with the unexpected and wides pread French scorn for American fairy-tale characters. French culture has its own lovable cartoon characters such as Asterix, the helmeted, pint-sized Gallic warrior who has a theme park located near EuroDisney. Hostility among the French people to the whole â€Å"Disney idea† had surfaced early in the planning of the new project. Paris theater director Ariane Mnouchkine became famous for her description of EuroDisney as â€Å"a cultural Chernobyl. † In fall 1989, during a visit to Paris, French Communists pelted Michael Eisner with eggs. The joke going around at the time was, â€Å"For EuroDisney to adapt properly to France, all seven of Snow White’s dwarfs should be named Grumpy (Grincheux). Early advertising by EuroDisney seemed to aggravate local French sentiment by emphasizing glitz and size, rather than the variety of rides and attractions. Committed to maintaining Disney’s reputation for quality in everything, more detail was built into EuroDisney. For example, the centerpiece castle in the Magic Kingdom had to be bigger and fancier than in the other parks. Expensive trams were built along a lake to take guests from the hotels to the park, but visitors preferred walking. Total park construction costs were estimated at FFr 14 billion ($2. 7 billion) in 1989 but rose by $340 million to FFr 16 billion as a result of all these addons. Hotel construction costs alone rose from an estimated FFr 3. 4 billion to FFr 5. 7 billion. EuroDisney and Disney managers unhappily succeeded in alienating many of their counterparts in the government, the banks, the ad agencies, and other concerned organizations. A barnstorming, kick-the-door-down attitude seemed to reign among th e U. S. decision makers. â€Å"They had a formidable image and convinced everyone that if we let them do it their way, we would all have a marvelous adventure. One former Disney executive voiced the opinion, â€Å"We were arrogant – it was like ‘We’re building the Taj Mahal and people will come – on our terms. † STORM CLOUDS AHEAD Disney and its advisors failed to see signs at the end of the 1980s of the approaching European recession. Other dramatic events included the Gulf War in 1991, which put a heavy brake on vacation travel for the rest of that year. Other external factors that Disney executives have cited are high interest rates and the devaluation of several currencies against the franc. EuroDisney also encountered difficulties with regard to competition – the World’s Fair in Seville and the 1992 Olympics in Barcelona were huge attractions for European tourists. Disney management’s conviction that it knew best was demonstrated by its much-trumpeted ban on alcohol in the park. This proved insensitive to the local culture because the French are the world’s biggest consumers of wine. To them a meal without unverre de rouge is unthinkable. Disney relented. It also had to relax its rules on personal grooming of the projected 12,000 cast members, the park employees. Women were allowed to wear redder nail polish than in the United States, but the taboo on men’s facial hair was maintained. â€Å"We want the clean-shaven, neat and tidy look,† commented the director of Disney University’s Paris branch, which trains prospective employees in Disney values and culture. EuroDisney’s management did, however, compromise on the question of pets. Special kennels were built to house visitors’ animals. The thought of leaving a pet at home during vacation is considered irrational by many French people. Plans for further development of EuroDisney after 1992 were ambitious. The initial number of hotel rooms was planned to be 5,200, more than in the entire city of Cannes on the Cote d’ Azur. Also planned were shopping malls, apartments, golf courses, and vacation homes. EuroDisney would design and build everything itself, with a view to selling at a profit. As a Disney executive commented, â€Å"Disney at various points could have had partners to share the risk or buy the hotels outright. But it didn’t want to give up the upside. â€Å"From the time they came on, Disney’s Chairman Eisner and President Wells had never made a single misstep, never a mistake, never a failure,† said a ormer Disney executive. â€Å"There was a tendency to believe that everything they touched would be perfect. † The incredible growth record fostered this belief. In the seven years EuroDisney opened, they took the parent company from being a company with $1 billion in revenues to one with $8. 5 billion, mainly through internal growth. Telling and Selling Fairy Tales: Mistaken assumptions by the Disney management team affected construction design, marketing and pricing policies, and park management, as well as initial financing. Disney executives had been erroneously informed that Europeans don’t eat break fast. Restaurant breakfast service was downsized accordingly, and guess what? â€Å"Everybody showed up for breakfast. We were trying to serve 2,500 breakfasts in a 350 – seat restaurant (at some of the hotels). The lines were horrendous. And they didn’t just want croissants and coffee, they wanted bacon and eggs. † In contrast to Disney’s American parks where visitors typically stay at least three days, EuroDisney is at most a two-day visit. Energetic visitors need even less time. One analyst claimed to have â€Å"done† every EuroDisney ride in just five hours. Typically many guests arrive early in the morning, rush to the park, come back to their hotel at night, and then check out the next morning before heading back to the park. Vacation customs of Europeans were not taken into consideration. Disney executives had optimistically expected that the arrival of their new theme park would cause French parents to take their children out of school in mid-session for a short break. It did not happen, unless a public holiday occurred over a weekend. Similarly, Disney expected that the American-style short but more frequent family vacation, usually taken in August. However, French office and factory schedules remained the same, with their emphasis on an August shutdown. In promoting the new park to visitors, Disney did not stress the entertainment value of a visit to the new theme park; the emphasis was on the size of the park, which â€Å"ruined the magic. † To counter this, ads were changes to feature Zorro, a French favorite, mary Poppins, and Aladdin, star of the huge moneymaking movie success. A print ad campaign at that time featured Aladdin, Cinderella’s castle, and a little girl being invited to njoy a â€Å"magic vacation,† at the kingdom where all dreams come true. Six new attractions were added in 1994, including the Temple of Peril, Storybook Land; and the Nautilus attraction. Donald Duck’s birthday was celebrated on June 9 – all in hopes of positioning EuroDisney as the No. 1 European destination of short duration, one to three days. Tomorrowland: Faced with falling share prices and crisis talk am ong shareholders, Disney was forced to step forward in late 1993 to rescue the new park. Disney announced that it would fund EuroDisney until a financial restructuring could be worked out with lenders. However, it was made clear by the parent company, Disney, that it â€Å"was not writing a blank check. † In June 1994, EuroDisney received a new lifeline when a member of the Saudi royal family agreed to invest up to $500 million for a 24 percent stake in the park. The price has an established reputation in world markets as a â€Å"bottom-fisher. † Buying into potentially viable operations during crisis when share prices are low. The prince’s plans included a $100 million convention center at EuroDisney. One of the few pieces of good new about EuroDisney is that its convention business exceeded expectations from the beginning. MANAGEMENT AND NAME CHANGES Frenchman Philippe Bourguignon took over at EuroDisney as CEO in 1993 and has navigated the theme park back to profitability. He was instrumental in the negotiations with the firm’s bankers, cutting a deal that he credits largely for bringing the park back into the black. Perhaps more important to the long-run success of the venture were his changes in marketing. The pan-European approach to marketing was dumped, and national markets were targeted separately. This new localization took into account the differing tourists’ habits around the continent. Separate marketing offices were opened in London, Frankfurt, Milan, Brussels, Amsterdam and Madrid, and each was charged with tailoring advertising and packages to its own market. Prices were cut by 20 percent for park admission and 30 percent for some hotel room rates. Special promotions were also run for the winter months. The central theme of the new marketing and operations approach is that people visit the park for an â€Å"authentic† Disney day out. They may not be completely sure what that means, except that it entails something American. This is reflected in the transformation of the park’s name. The â€Å"Euro† in EuroDisney was first shrunk in the logo, and the word â€Å"land† added. Then in October 1994 the â€Å"Euro† was eliminated completely; the park is now called Disneyland Paris. In 1996 Disneyland Paris became France’s most visited tourist attraction, ahead of both the Louvre Art Museum and the Eiffel Tower, 11. 7 million visitors (a 9 percent increase from the previous year) allowed the park to report another profitable year. THEME PARK EXPANSION IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY With the recovery of Disneyland Paris, Disney embarked on an ambitious growth plan. In 2001 the California Adventure Park was added to the Anaheim complex at a cost of $1. 4 billion and Walt Disney Studios Theme Park was added to Disneyland Paris. Through agreements with foreign partners, Disney will open Disney-Sea in Tokyo and plans are underway for a theme park in Shanghai that Chinese officials hope will open in time for the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing and a park in Hong Kong is to open in 2006. A decade after being slammed for its alleged ignorance of European ways with EuroDisney, Disney is trying to prove it’s gotten things right the second time around. The new movie-theme park, Walt Disney Studios, adjacent to Disneyland Paris, is designed to be a tribute to moviemaking – but not just the Hollywood kind. The Walt Disney Studios blend Disney entertainment and attractions with the history and culture of European film since French camera-makers helped invent the motion picture. The park’s general layout is modeled after an old Hollywood studio complex, and some of the rides and shows are near replicas of Disney’s first film park, Disney-MGM Studios. Rather than celebrating the history of U. S. Disney characters, the characters in the new theme park speak six different languages. A big stunt show features cars and motorcycles that race through a village modeled after the French resort town of St. Tropez. Small details reflect the cultural lessons learned. â€Å"We made sure that all our food venues have covered seating,† recalling that, when EuroDisney first opened, the open-air restaurants offered no protection from the rainy weather that assails the park for long stretches of the year. On the food front, EuroDisney offered only a French sausage, drawing complaints from the English, Germans, Italians, and everyone else about why their local sausages weren’t available. This time around, the park caters to the multiple indigenous cultures throughout Europe – which includes a wider selection of sausages. Unlike Disney’s attitude with their first park in France, â€Å"Now we realize that our guests need to be welcomed on the basis of their own culture and travel habits,† says Disneyland Paris Chief Executive. Disneyland Paris today is Europe’s biggest tourist attraction – even more popular than the Eiffel Tower – a turnaround that showed the park operators’ ability to learn from their mistakes. The root of Disney’s problems in EuroDisney may be found in the tremendous success of Japan’s Disneyland. The Tokyo Park was a success from the first day and it has been visited by millions of Japanese who wanted to capture what they perceived at the ultimate U. S. entertainment experience. Disney took the entire U. S. theme park and transplanted it in Japan. It worked because of the Japanese attachment to Disney characters. Schools have field trips to meet Mickey and his friends to the point that the Disney experience has become ingrained in Japanese life. In the book, Disneyland as Holy Land, University of Tokyo professor Masako otoji wrote: â€Å"The opening of Tokyo Disneyland was, in retrospect, the greatest cultural event in Japan during the ‘80s. † With such success, is there any wonder that Disney thought they had the right model when they first went to France? The Tokyo Disney constitutes a very rare case in that the number of visitors has not decreased since the opening. While Disney Japan was a success the company also admitted making a major financial error when the park was launched. It had licensed its name and image to another company that actually owns and operates the park as well as the land where it sits. Disney collects only a small fraction of the revenues that run into hundreds of millions of dollars every year. Since they were not certain of the success of the first international venture, it was the price they were willing to pay; however, it vowed never to repeat that error and to never have its hands tied again. As a consequence, when they began the jParis Park, they were fanatically intent on owning and controlling the park as well as enough adjacent property for its own exclusive hotels – â€Å"they were sure they had the right model and they were going to own it all. † Thus, they began planning EuroDisney. QUESTIONS 1. You as Disney’s Chairman Eisner Present the Euro Disney project as success of Global marketing. 2. To what degree, you as Eisner,consider the disturbing factors were (a) foreseeable and (b) controllable by the parent company, Disney? 3. What then you think as the factors that stop standardized marketing practice. How to cite Euro Disney, Essay examples

Wednesday, April 29, 2020

School Uniforms Essays (517 words) - Formal Wear, Dress Codes

School Uniforms Free Swiss Anti-Wrinkle Cream. You Won't Believe Your Eyes! School Uniforms John Doe walks into a skyscraper, confident and well groomed wearing a tie, suit, and dress shoes. His confidence moves him forward, as he enters an elevator going up to the 23rd floor. He approaches his first job interview since leaving Jesuit Prep: McAllen McAllen Law. This well groomed man graduated from Jesuit prep, which had a dress code and hair restrictions. This dress code and hair restrictions evolved young men into mature adults over a 4 year period at Jesuit. The dress code and hair restrictions play a vital role for our future as they build class integration, increase our image in the community, and dress the students for business, not play. Jesuit Prep needs to continue this vital dress code and hair restrictions for the future. Having a school full of students wearing the same clothes and hairstyles helps build an integration within the class. Students that wear many different styles of clothes all come together wearing similar pants, shirts, ties, and shoes. Through a dress code and hair restrictions, everyone is helped to be made more comfortable by wearing similar clothes, otherwise, people may feel alienated with less trendy or "cool" clothes. Hairstyles help ease this integration as well by giving each person similar styles making everyone feel more at ease. The overall integration helps the students realize that although people may look similar, the idea that everyone exhibits will be greatly different. These different ideas are present in everyone, and the dress code and hair restrictions help illustrate that just because someone looks the same, they do not think the same. When the students get jobs or find careers in their future, it will be helpful to know that even though all their co-wor s seem similar, they are in actuality very different. This approach to future jobs and careers will give the students an advantage in being open minded with people. The dress code and hair restrictions will help Jesuit students by improving their image they present to the outside community. An image is a very important part of any student's life. How others perceive us will impact many future decisions others make. By abiding to a dress code and hair restrictions, our image will come across to others as very clean, organized, and responsible. Future business partners and bosses will always be more trusting with people who fit that image. Within everyone's life, there is a time for fun and a time for business. While some people wait until they are well passed high school before they prepare for business, Jesuit is in the forefront preparing students now. This preparation stems from the dress code and hair restrictions which are enforced by Jesuit Prep. When a coat and tie are worn and hair is neatly brushed, a student does not want to get dirty, so they turn businesslike in their manner by learning and acting in a very mature manner. As you can see, the dress code and hair restriction of Jesuit are vital parts of student development. Integration, image, and dressing for success are important benefits of the dress code and hair restrictions. These benefits will be used into each students' future to help them move forward within their own career and life.

Friday, March 20, 2020

Free Essays on Valentine Poems.

Free Essays on Valentine Poems. As I walk along the rocky sand A thought of you comes to mind And though time runs through my hands Another you, I’ll never find Be my valentine, for I Each day, have thought of you My whole life cannot manage what Your ready smile can do. Being with you where I cannot be In love there is an ecstasy unmoving I hope a little piece of you is reserved for me Plenty of love, Loads of kisses I hope someday To be your Mrs! My love is like a cabbage Divided into two The leaves I give to others The heart I give to you...

Wednesday, March 4, 2020

Learn About the Distant Dwarf Planet Pluto

Learn About the Distant Dwarf Planet Pluto Of all the planets in the solar system, the tiny dwarf planet Pluto captures peoples attention like no other. For one thing, it was discovered in 1930 by astronomer Clyde Tombaugh. Most planets most planets were found much earlier. For another, its so distant no one knew much about it. That was true until 2015 when the New Horizons spacecraft flew by and gave gorgeous close-up images of it. However, the biggest reason Pluto is on peoples minds is for a much simpler reason: in 2006, a small group of astronomers (most of them not planetary scientists), decided to demote Pluto from being a planet. That started a huge controversy that continues to this day.   Pluto from Earth Pluto is so far away that we cant see it with the naked eye. Most desktop planetarium programs and digital apps can show observers where Pluto is, but anyone wishing to see it needs a pretty good telescope. The Hubble Space Telescope, which orbits Earth, has been able to observe it, but the great distance didnt allow a highly detailed image.   Pluto lies in a region of the solar system called the Kuiper Belt. It contains more dwarf planets, plus a collection of cometary nuclei. Planetary astronomers sometimes refer to this area as the third regime of the solar system, more distant than the terrestrial and gas giant planets.   Pluto by the Numbers As a dwarf planet, Pluto is obviously a small world. It measures 7,232 km around at its equator, which makes it smaller than Mercury and the Jovian moon Ganymede. Its much larger than its companion world Charon, which is  Ã¢â‚¬â€¹3,792  km  around.   For a long time, people thought Pluto was an ice world, which makes sense since it orbits so far from the Sun in a realm where most gases freeze to ice. Studies made by the New Horizons craft show that there is indeed a lot of ice at Pluto. However, it turns out to much denser than expected, which means it has a rocky component far beneath the icy crust.   Distance lends Pluto a certain amount of mystery since we cant see any of its features from Earth. It lies an average of 6 billion kilometers from the Sun. In reality, Plutos orbit is very elliptical (egg-shaped) and so this little world can be anywhere from 4.4 billion km to just over 7.3 billion km, depending on where it is in its orbit. Since it lies so far away from the Sun, Pluto takes 248 Earth years to make one trip around the Sun.   Pluto on the Surface Once New Horizons got to Pluto, it found a world covered with nitrogen ice in some places, along with some water ice. Some of the surface appears very dark and reddish. This is due to an organic substance that is created when ices are bombarded by ultraviolet light from the Sun. Theres a great deal of fairly young ice deposited on the surface, which comes from inside the planet. Jagged mountain peaks made of water ice rise up above flat plains and some of those mountains are as high as the Rockies.   Pluto Under the Surface So, what causes ice to ooze up from underneath Plutos surface?  Planetary scientists have a good idea that theres something heating the planet deep within the core. This mechanism is what helps pave the surface with fresh ice, and shoves up the mountain ranges. One scientist described Pluto as a giant, cosmic lava lamp. Pluto Above the Surface Like most other planets (except Mercury) Pluto has an atmosphere. Its not a very thick one, but the New Horizons spacecraft could definitely detect it.  Mission data show that the atmosphere, which is mostly nitrogen, is replenished as nitrogen gas escapes from the planet. Theres also evidence that material escaping from Pluto manages to land on Charon and collect around its polar cap. Over time, that material is darkened by solar ultraviolet light, too.   Plutos Family Along with Charon, Pluto sports a retinue of tiny moons called Styx, Nix, Kerberos, and Hydra. Theyre oddly shaped and appear to be captured by Pluto after a gigantic collision in the distant past. In keeping with naming conventions used by astronomers, the moons are named from creatures associated with the god of the underworld, Pluto.  Styx is the river that dead souls  cross to get to Hades. Nix is the Greek goddess of darkness, while Hydra was a many-headed serpent. Kerberos is an alternate spelling for Cerberus, the so-called hound of Hades who guarded the gates to the underworld in mythology. Whats Next for Pluto Exploration? There are no further missions being built to go to Pluto. There are plans on the drawing board for one or more that could go out this distant outpost in the solar systems Kuiper Belt and possibly even land there.

Monday, February 17, 2020

Enterprise and Business Development Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Enterprise and Business Development - Essay Example (According to the poll of An IoS/Sunday Mirror MORI more than 5.8 people, during the election campaign of 1997, were influenced by the voting preferences of Richard, 36 percent of the readers of Financial Times said that their decision would be influenced by Richard choice. (The Independent Sunday, April 13, 1997 p19. Title: Election 1997: Taking Branson seriously.(Features) Author: Stephen Fay). Apparently no one could predict on July 18, 1950 when Richard Branson was born that this boy would become one of the most successful entrepreneurs in the history of Britain. He was born in the family that had had the long history of legal occupations. Three generations of Branson were educated as the lawyers (Daily Telegraph, Family Detective An investigation into our hidden histories. This week: Richard Branson., Weekend, May 14, 2005). It is doubtful whether he has inherited any of love or interest for law from his farther's side, but the experience and love for flying of his mother and aunt -Evette and Clare -might have influenced him and produced this well known desire for flight and adventure. Those people, who read his biography, understand that even in his early childhood he received an upbringing that infused him with pertinacity and alacrity - vital elements for every entrepreneur. His mother always tried to cultivate independence in Richard. According to Richard autobiography, she asked him to find the ways among the fields to their home, when he was four years old, she also several years later made him to cycle to another city situated fifty miles away in order to teach him the sense of the direction.; besides children in their family were taught to work hard, and not to be selfish. ( Richard Branson Autobiography, Chapter 1: A family that would have killed for each other. 1950 - 1963) In spite the fact that he was taught to be independent, his strong connection with his family as well as his upbringing in the spirit of collective and friendly team was, as one can guess, responsible for the difficult, unpalatable times that he experienced in Scaitcliffe -boarding school where he was sent by his parents ".. I loathed being sent away from home at such an early age, and have always vowed to myself that I would never send my children to boarding school until they were of an age to make up their own minds about it." ( Richard Branson Autobiography, Chapter 1: A family that would have killed for each other. 1950 - 1963). The problems were exacerbated by the fact that he suffered from dyslexia, though they were mitigated, up to the point by the fact that he excelled himself in sport. But after the injury of his knee he was unable to participate in any sport games, and because Richard could not rely solely on his academic records that were far from being brilliant he was s ent to another school- Cliff View House. He was not sucessfull there either, and in 1968 he had to leave the school with few qualifications. In 1971 he opened Virgin Mail Order Records. The Virgin Record- the byword of his success in business was found as an accident (Robert Scheinfeld , The Eleventh Element : the key to unlocking your master blueprint for wealth and success , p.116). By the time of the launching of V, Records project he had already had bad experience with the magazine that he